A blog by Dr Jonathan Reed
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I have been reading an excellent book on personality research called Personality: What makes you the way you are by Daniel Nettle. It is written for the non expert and is easy to read and full of interesting observations. In the UK the psychology of personality has not been very influential on clinical practice. Most Clinical Psychologists do not assess personality, particularly in children and young people. In addition the study of personality has not featured on many university courses and certainly was not part of my undergraduate degree. However, recently I have began to take an interest in this area of psychology because it makes a lot of sense clinically. The children and young people I see have clear personality traits which fit with the current research. Having read Daniel Nettles’ book I believe that there will be a renaissance in personality assessment and understanding over the coming years. There are three key facts driving this, which are:
1. Researchers studying personality using factor analysis have come to a consensus that there are five main personality factors, which are:
Neuroticism (emotional stability)
2. The behavioural genetics work fits with the five factor model and also suggests that these traits have a large genetic component.
3. There is increasing interest in the neuroscience of personality. The five factors are associated with different neural pathways e.g. Neuroticism (amygdala, hippocampus and R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex); Conscientiousness (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex); Extraversion (mid brain dopamine reward systems).
Given the genetic and neuroscientific evidence it would make sense to consider personality when looking at development, emotional and social difficulties in childhood.
There are lots of thought provoking issues raised in the book but I will highlight three that I think have major implications:
Firstly behavioural genetics studies have shown consistently that shared family environment i.e. parents, have little to no effect on development of adult personality (not sure what the Freudians make of this!).
Secondly that multivariate analysis shows that children’s personality seems to affect the way parent’s treat them rather than the other way round.
Thirdly : Personality seems to predict quite strongly, certain life experiences. For example high scores on Neuroticism predicts higher likelihood of divorce and low scores on conscientiousness predicts early death. Nettle argues that personality assessment together with IQ are two of the strongest predictors for how you will do in life. It is important to note that the genetics of IQ and personality account for about 50% of variance and environment is also important. There are ways of course that you can alter your environment to influence your life course. However, I think that it is likely that without intervention the genetic biases we all have will lead us in certain directions.
If you want to find out what your personality is there is a online test at the personality project website where you can take an anonymous personality test as part of an online research study. More information on personality can be found at the main personality project website.
I have just been reading a very good new book on neuropsychological rehabilitation by Barbara Wilson and colleagues Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: Theory, Models, Therapy and Outcome
I also heard her give an interesting talk this week on memory rehabilitation. In the book and the talk she discuses proven techniques to help with memory. These are designed for individual with memory problems but they also work really well for anyone wanting to learn and remember information. The methods are backed with experimental evidence. They will work for adults as well as children.
1. Encourage associations or links when learning- the best way is to use visual or spatial images and associate these with what you are trying to learn. Some of the best learners use an internal picture of a house or journey and imagine what they have to remember placed in different places in the house. This helps with retrieval of information from memory.
2. Spaced retrieval i.e. gradually extend the recall time. With this you need to initially recall what you have learnt straight away and then over time extend the time gap between learning and retrieval. For example look at a fact to remember, cover and recall immediately, then look again and wait for 15 seconds and try and recall, then 30 seconds and then 1 min etc. This leads to information stored more deeply in memory.
3. Pace your learning and reduce the amount you are trying to learn at any one time. Learn a few bits of information, have a break and learn a few more. Trying to do too much at once doesn’t work.
4. Organize the information e.g. if learning a list, group the items together according to meaning. For example for a shopping list put the items of fruit together, drink together etc. If learning facts group together for meaning. The brain likes to store information semantically i.e. according to categories.
5. Error free learning- this is used to teach others. If the person doesn’t know the answer to the question immediately provide the answer and ask them to repeat. Continue to support until the answer is recalled automatically without any errors. This works for adults with memory problems including those with Alzheimer’s and also for children with learning difficulties. See previous post for more details
It does take a bit more effort to store information more efficiently in memory when learning but these methods are proven to work. There are other techniques and also the research behind them in the book.