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Child Neuropsychology

A blog by Dr Jonathan Reed

  • The founding father of psychology Sigmund Freud was fascinated by the unconscious mind and made this the centre of his study and practice.  The role of the unconscious in psychology quickly fell out of fashion.  This was because it could not be measured or easily understood.  Initially behaviourism became dominant, based on the objective analysis of observable behaviour.  Later the focus in psychology shifted to studying cognition – the study of thought processes.  Both areas resulted to different psychological therapies for example,  Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), and different ways of understanding learning.  Over the last decade or so neuropsychology has started to emerge.  Neuropsychology focuses on the relationship between the brain and behaviour (including cognition).  And guess what – as we begin to understand the role of the brain in psychology there is an increasing interest in the role of  unconscious processes (brain actions that we are not aware of consciously) .  Back to the start again- maybe Freud was right all along!

    I wrote about the importance if understanding the relationship between sub cortical structures and the cortex in a previous post. I have also just read a fascinating and very readable book by David Eagleman Incognito: The Secret Lives of The Brain.  This book looks at the dominant role that the unconscious brain plays in everyday human life.  Eagleman argues that most of what we do happens automatically and without our conscious brains being aware.  He gives numerous examples of how unconscious processes control our psychology including our attraction to others, our prejudices, our perception of the world, as well as the more obvious examples of motor control- I would really recommending reading the book to understand the richness of his argument.  He argues that conscious thought processes play a very small role in our lives,  perhaps just to allowing us to think flexibly and set goals (clearly this has big consequences as the achievements and dominance of the human species shows).  Intriguingly he also suggests that maybe our conscious self is not in control at all, but we (it) just think we are.  This was a central point in Chris’s Frith’s excellent although more academic book Making Up the Mind: How the Brain Creates Our Mental World.  Both authors report studies  showing that when you ask someone to tell when they have the urge to lift their finger and scan their brain, the part of the brain responsible for planning the action lights up before they report the urge to lift their finger.  Therefore the unconscious brain is making the decision before they are are consciously aware of it.

    Understanding the role of unconscious processes has important implications for psychology.  David Eagleman discusses in detail the implications for the criminal justice system.  Are criminals to blame for acts committed by unconscious processes (and especially when you add in abusive childhoods, brain injury, learning problems, genetics, which are all out of conscious control)?  I think there are also significant implications for child neuropsychology.  Understanding how our brains work and basing treatment and intervention on this understanding will lead to more effective intervention.  In my practice I work a lot with children with significant learning disabilities and brain injury.  Often they are unable to learn or control emotions and behaviour consciously.  I  look at ways to influence implicit processes  i.e changing the environment rather than expecting individual to change.  Also with my games company Neurogames I integrate implicit learning processes into the games, which I think is what makes them effective.  However we are only just starting to understand these processes and as our understanding increases I expect there to much more focus on sub cortical and unconscious processes in psychology.  This is not entirely easy as we create and develop psychological theories using the conscious parts of our mind, thus we are already biased.  We need to suspend our own perceptions and experience, based on our conscious view of the world and look at the data instead (a bit like theoretical physics).  Understanding how the brain actually works holds promise for major changes in psychological treatment, teaching and social policy.  Maybe we are also on the verge of a revolution in how we see ourselves?   I’ll keep you posted on ideas that emerge.